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Buy It Now. Add to cart. Dreachslin , Paperback. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information Written by three nationally known scholars and experts, Diversity and Cultural Competence in Health Care: A Systems Approach is designed to provide upper division and graduate level health care students and professionals with a clear understanding of recent philosophies and processes undergirding diversity management, inclusion, and culturally competent care delivery as seen through the lens of current health care policy and practice.

The textbook integrates strategic diversity management, self-reflective leadership and the personal change process, with culturally and linguistically appropriate care into a cohesive systems-oriented approach for health care professionals. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less.

Diversity and Cultural Competence in Health Care A Systems Approach

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Cultural competence in healthcare

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Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Secret Empires by Peter Schweizer , Hardcover The Secret by Preiss et al. Cultural norms such as language, beliefs, and practices can easily be misunderstood in a multicultural environment. For this reason, cultural and language difficulties between both patients and healthcare providers and the healthcare team have the potential to adversely affect the ability of healthcare professionals to work competently and safely [ 7 ]. The health literature on cultural competence which includes components such as cultural understanding, cultural sensitivity and cultural encounters in healthcare services has gained momentum in recent years.

In addition, this concept is one of the most frequently used cultural paradigms in health care, but it is not the only one. Concurrently, the existence of cultural concepts e.

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There is a lot of unknown about cultural competence. For this reason, increased work is needed to minimize this chaos that emerges among concepts, to fully explain cultural competence and to integrate it into the health system in different ways. In this part of the book, discussion will be given on the findings of qualitative studies related to the subject as well as basic information on cultural competence based on the information obtained, aware of the lack of knowledge and the lack of information in the current literature. The main points in such a care approach should be cultural factors affecting health perceptions and health practices such as language, communication style, religious beliefs and practices, attitudes and behaviors as well as the diversity of the patient population [ 9 ].

Indeed, the lack of universal, full and clear meanings of the concept of cultural competence leads to confusion about the objectives, scope and content of educational activities to be provided to the cultural competence of health personnel.

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Competence implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities [ 11 ]. Cultural competence is essential for working with indigenous and ethnic minority individuals in all areas of healthcare services in a society.

Culturally, competent health personnel must understand the views of the world and of their patients while avoiding stereotyping and misapplication of scientific knowledge [ 12 ]. In order to prevent inequality in health, culturally competent care is especially important for minorities who live in that community and who apply for health care and receive this service from the majority members of that community. Indeed, the most common causes of health inequality in minority communities include missed opportunities for screening because of lack of familiarity with the prevalence of conditions among certain minority groups; failure to take into account differing responses to medication; lack of knowledge about traditional remedies, leading to harmful drug interactions; and diagnostic errors resulting from miscommunication [ 8 ].

If the cultural factors are ignored, the healthcare quality will reduce, and the negative health outcomes will arise. It should not be forgotten, in addition to ethnic and racial minority communities in care related to cultural competence, other groups such as women, the elderly, gays and lesbians, people with disabilities, and religious minorities [ 10 ] exposed to health inequality in the community should also be considered in depth.

For example, in a particular society, gender norms may lead to differences in access to resources and health services as well as social status and power between men and women. One of the most common cases is the desire of patients to select health personnel according to their genders. Or, on the other hand, despite the lack of a professional approach, avoiding interfering with a patient of opposite sex under the name of privacy intimidation by health personnel is one of the preferences that create inequity in health.

For example, options like, especially, electing female physicians of women with pregnant or gynecological problems; trying to find male health personnel of female nurses for a male patient who will be urinary catheterization in the clinic are actions prolonging and limiting the service process even though they are not directly visible. Such situations also occur because of cultural norms as well as social role and religious perception of the individual. Cultural competence in the field of health should be examined and studied in order not to be exposed to prejudice and discrimination in terms of health personnel who are a minority in a particular society.

Diversity and Cultural Competence in Health Care: A Systems Approach | Ellibs Library

Hence, it should be continued throughout life [ 14 ]. In the literature, regarding cultural differences, it is emphasized that the incidence of cardiovascular diseases is low in France due to the presence of red wine consumption which compensates for the negative effect of high saturated fat intake [ 15 ]. Or, in the United States, it is known that African Americans may be likely to attribute illness externally to destiny. They believe that the disease comes from God and believe in the healing power of prayer [ 16 ]. In Muslim societies, while illness and disease may be regarded as a test from Allah, they carry tidings of forgiveness and mercy.

The understanding of cultural competent care has shown itself to be more evident and widespread in recent years. One of the most fundamental factors is the rapid population migration, and therefore, the multicultural communities have begun to live together.

Diversity and Cultural Competence in Health Care : A Systems Approach

This increase in immigration among countries in the world has also led to an increase in the number of ethnic minority patients and ethnic minority health personnel in the health system [ 20 ]. In addition to this, the recognition of more equally equal rights within the society to the minority groups compared to the old and the expected satisfaction has demonstrated the importance of the concept of cultural competence in almost all service areas, including health services.

Cultural competence as a concept beyond cultural awareness and sensitivity requires not only knowledge of different cultures but also skills, abilities, powers and competencies necessary for establishing respectfully and culturally appropriate relations [ 10 , 18 ]. While providing culturally competent care has removed health inequalities caused by socioeconomic and cultural differences, it increases the quality of care and efficiency of the service, improves the health outcomes, and increases the satisfaction of the customers and healthcare provider [ 11 , 13 ]. The concept of cultural competence is widening and the definitions, models and strategies of practice continue to evolve [ 5 ].

The concept of cultural competence is handled by different thinkers and theorists, and the results of the studies have also found subcomponents that are related to the concept. Components are also found in the models of cultural competence introduced by various theoreticians. Qualitative study results related to the concept in the literature also revealed similar components in this model [ 6 , 20 ].

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Even if they are not directly based, these standards are the titles that can indirectly lead to the maintenance of cultural competence in health services. Language competence and providing interpreting services. By providing interpreting services for individuals from different cultures who speak different languages, the inadequacies and disruptions caused by language differences can be eliminated. Nowadays, health services can be provided to the patients who apply for medical tourism by considering the cultural differences in the units opened in the hospitals. Indeed, the inability of hospitals and health personnel to perform equally in languages other than their native language is an important factor in reducing the level of access to health care for many people.

Providing employment for minority individuals in health services can create an effective communication environment that can meet the needs of minority communities, common cultural beliefs and common language. Thus, a structured and developed health system will also occur, as well as existing health services will be a more welcoming environment for individuals from different cultures. Accordingly, to recognize the possibility of placement and scholarship for minority personnel, to create minority staff job notices, to make regulations by creating a safe working environment for minority personnel are basic interventions that can be done [ 10 ].

Thus, it is important that health professionals should be acquired the necessary knowledge and skills to be able to provide culturally competent care to patients from different ethnic origins [ 20 ]. At the same time, public information for minority groups, health screening programs, public audiovisual educational activities can be organized in order to create incentives to protect health [ 10 ]. Coordinated study with appropriate traditional treatment methods allows that the healthcare service can be presented in a conceptual framework compatible with the current health system by taking into account the cultural beliefs and traditions of the individual.

This increases the positive attitudes of individuals to treatment and care proposals and, commitment to the treatment process [ 10 ].

The primary objective of the current study is to assess the cultural competence of the care provided in healthcare services. To identify the current state of perceptions and views of health professionals related to cultural competence within the context of healthcare services, to identify the influencing factors cultural competence among recipients and caregivers, to improve care for cultural competence and to assess existing regulations used in the improvement of health practices also are secondary objectives of the study.

The study was carried out as a retrospective screening of publications related to the subject. The sample group of the study does not include a single population. Within the context of health services, all sample groups included in cultural competence studies were included in the study. The quantitative researches, mix research methods both qualitative and quantitative , thesis studies related to the subject and verbal or poster notifications presented in the congresses were not included in the scope of the study.


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Because of their extensive experience for over a decade, each of the scanned articles was evaluated based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Program CASP 10 questions established for qualitative research. According to this, seven articles matching the criteria have been reached and were evaluated.


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  • In the study, interpretation and evaluation of qualitative data were performed using metasynthesis techniques. Descriptive and content analysis were used together in the analysis of the data obtained at the end of the research process. First, the researcher gave a code to each article A, B, C vs. Second, in each article, the previously identified themes were made into a table. Third, common themes were created by the researcher using the previous literature information from each article.

    After, direct citations were made from the opinions of the individuals in relation to the topic within the text. As a result of scanning the databases via current keywords, initially, articles were found potentially relevant titles or abstracts.